URI 转义



escaped     = "%" hex hex
hex         = digit | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F" |
                      "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f"

比如 + 转义后是 %2B


url 里出现的 ;/?:@&=+$,#[]!'()* 字符串,客户端要不要转义?服务端如何解码?


1994 年提出的 RFC1738 定义了 URI 最初的规范,1998 年提出的 RFC2396 有较为完整的规范,2005 年提出的 RFC3986 最终成为主流规范。 其过程对保留字的定义等有所改变,所以存在历史的变(包)迁(袱)。

详见统一资源标志符 - 标准改良

很多语言的标准库是基于 RFC2396 实现的,留下来很重的包袱,相信很多程序员都踩过这坑。 但也能理解,因为编程语言要向后兼容,语言标准库不可能为了 05 年提出来的规范做出不兼容修改。

比如 JS 的 encodeURI 和 encodeURIComponent。 具体见 tc39 规范

// 修正 encodeURIComponent 改成 RFC3986 规范
// https://developer.mozilla.org/zh-CN/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/encodeURIComponent
function fixedEncodeURIComponent(str) {
  return encodeURIComponent(str).replace(/[!'()*]/g, function(c) {
    return '%' + c.charCodeAt(0).toString(16);

又比如 JAVA 标准库里的 java.net.URLEncoder。 又比如 PHP 的 urlencode


标准 提出年号 保留字(需要转义) 非保留字(不用转义)
RFC2396 1998 ;/?:@&=+$, alphanum 和 -_.~!*'()
RFC3986 2005 ;/?:@&=+$,#[]!'()* alphanum 和 -_.~


RFC2396 的描述

2.4.2. When to Escape and Unescape

A URI is always in an “escaped” form, since escaping or unescaping a completed URI might change its semantics. Normally, the only time escape encodings can safely be made is when the URI is being created from its component parts; each component may have its own set of characters that are reserved, so only the mechanism responsible for generating or interpreting that component can determine whether or not escaping a character will change its semantics. Likewise, a URI must be separated into its components before the escaped characters within those components can be safely decoded.

In some cases, data that could be represented by an unreserved character may appear escaped; for example, some of the unreserved “mark” characters are automatically escaped by some systems. If the given URI scheme defines a canonicalization algorithm, then unreserved characters may be unescaped according to that algorithm. For example, “%7e” is sometimes used instead of “~” in an http URL path, but the two are equivalent for an http URL.

Because the percent “%” character always has the reserved purpose of being the escape indicator, it must be escaped as “%25” in order to be used as data within a URI. Implementers should be careful not to escape or unescape the same string more than once, since unescaping an already unescaped string might lead to misinterpreting a percent data character as another escaped character, or vice versa in the case of escaping an already escaped string.

RFC3986 的描述

2.4. When to Encode or Decode

Under normal circumstances, the only time when octets within a URI are percent-encoded is during the process of producing the URI from its component parts. This is when an implementation determines which of the reserved characters are to be used as subcomponent delimiters and which can be safely used as data. Once produced, a URI is always in its percent-encoded form.

When a URI is dereferenced, the components and subcomponents significant to the scheme-specific dereferencing process (if any) must be parsed and separated before the percent-encoded octets within those components can be safely decoded, as otherwise the data may be mistaken for component delimiters. The only exception is for percent-encoded octets corresponding to characters in the unreserved set, which can be decoded at any time. For example, the octet corresponding to the tilde (“~”) character is often encoded as “%7E” by older URI processing implementations; the “%7E” can be replaced by “~” without changing its interpretation.

Because the percent (“%”) character serves as the indicator for percent-encoded octets, it must be percent-encoded as “%25” for that octet to be used as data within a URI. Implementations must not percent-encode or decode the same string more than once, as decoding an already decoded string might lead to misinterpreting a percent data octet as the beginning of a percent-encoding, or vice versa in the case of percent-encoding an already percent-encoded string.



因为早期 url component encode/decode 遵循 application/x-www-form-urlencoded 的转换规则。

The space character “ “ is converted into a plus sign “+”.

JAVA 标准库的 java.net.URLEncoder,PHP 标准库的 urlencode 都这样。